Drawing a shape in the yellow rectangle makes signs appear that the application considers to be structurally similar.
Double- or right-clicking it will clear the canvas.

An → arrow means "as part of, in".

Relative frequency shows the percentage of the attestations currently displayed.

syntactic contexts:

These are the most common units preceding, containing, or following the evidence currently visible.


TLA dem:
WB: TLA egy: CDO: AKU:


    These are the different shapes and spellings of the sign / word.

    word contexts:

      The current sign / word is used as part of these words.


      The timeline depicts the periods which the Demotic script is traditionally divided into: Early Demotic (blue), early and late Middle Demotic (orange and yellow), and Late Demotic (green).

      The histogram (graph) on top of the timeline shows the temporal distribution of the inscriptions (not of the individual attestations). Each vertical bar's width corresponds to an interval of 25 years.

      If you narrow down the timeframe, then the yellowish histogram relates to the visible data while the gray histogram represents the unfiltered situation.

      Each circle represents a location to which inscriptions are assigned.

      The size of a circle shows the relation between the number of inscriptions at the corresponding location and the total number of inscriptions currently displayed.

      Along the edge of each circle is a circular timeline, which shows the dating of the inscriptions assigned to the location. 12 o'clock corresponds to 650 BC and 500 AD respectively.

      Locations can be (de)selected by clicking on the circles. Another option is to draw a rectangle with the right mouse button. This option can also be (de)activated by double clicking the map.

      source distribution:

      The circles indicate precisely dated inscriptions, while the rectangles relate to the approximately dated ones.


      The attestations are arranged on three levels.

      1. From top to bottom, the places are listed from north to south.

      2. Each place contains inscriptions, which are sorted chronologically from left to right.

      An inscription is a text written by a scribe at a particular time on a particular object. Usually, such a unit represents a Demotic papyrus, but if two scribes wrote on the same papyrus, then two inscriptions are displayed.

      The color of the border of each inscription relates to the time period during which the text was written. If the exact date of the text is unknown, then the arithmetic mean of the time period the text supposedly was written in is used.

      3. Each inscription contains the actual attestations. All of them were written by the same scribe at the same time on the same object.
      The numbers in the front of the images indicate how many attestations the inscription contains and how many of them are currently displayed (and not filtered out). You will only see the first few however, unless you click on the inscription (not the images) to see the rest of it.

      Click on the images to get more information about the attestations.


      Filter the evidence by (de)selecting some or all materials.

      text types:

      Filter the evidence by (de)selecting some or all text types.

      → Note that the assignment of text types has been done in an unsystematic way so far.


      Filter the evidence by (de)selecting some or all morphological forms.

      → Note that not all of attestations have been tagged so far.


      variant clusters:


      → use these data mining / unsupervised learning tools to discover hidden structures in the data.

      The application measures the correlation between variants and places, variants and periods, etc.

      For each combination, the distribution of the inscriptions is put into a contingency table.
      place Xnot place X
      variant Y 2 inscriptions10 inscriptions
      not variant Y8 inscriptions0 inscriptions
      (n = 20 inscriptions)

      The application then calculates the phi coefficient, which measures the association of the combination. Its values range between -1 and 1, with 1 indicating a perfect relationship.
      The combination is put on the screen, if the phi coefficient is larger than the threshold of 0.8.

      If the number of inscriptions is less than 10, no calculations are made.

      It is also possible to create a dendrogram of variant clusters based on different variant features.